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The Community Learning Network provides leadership, resources, and connections to over 80 Community Adult Learning Councils (CALCs) across Alberta.

Community Adult Learning Councils address the part-time,
non-credit learning needs of adults within specified geographic
boundaries. Currently 80 in number, these unique councils
consist of representatives of the local community who work together
to meet the program goals:

  • To improve the accessibility of learning opportunities in Alberta’s communities, especially for those individuals with special needs or barriers to learning.
  • To provide opportunities for Albertans to acquire important foundational skills such as literacy and English as a Second Language.
  • To address education, training and learning gaps in Alberta’s communities.
  • To mobilize community volunteers and other resources in support of learning.
  • To contribute to solving individual and community problemsthrough learning initiatives, in coordination and cooperation with related organizations.
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Websites That Have Chemistry Resources

 Chemistry is quite an interesting discipline. This is one of the many reasons as to why many students decide to take it up in school. It also helps one gain insight on what goes on in life, how the body functions and how some of the most important processes such as breathing take place. Course facilitators hold up their end of the deal and try to impact knowledge concerning the topic as much as they can. However, the students might have some follow up questions or they might as well want to delve deeper into certain aspects that intrigue them. It is difficult for the course tutor to help you out with this because he or she is dealing with a quorum and not an individual; it is impossible to deal with each and every student individually. In this case, websites that provide answers for chemistry homework come in handy because they will help answer all the questions that the students have and even give detailed explanations. It is also important to note that these websites are easy to assess and they also have forums and platforms where students from all over the globe can get to interact and discuss issues. Some of the websites include:

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) was formed in 1919 by chemists from industry and academia, who recognized the need for international standardization in chemistry. They publish a series of books, often referred to as the “Colour Books” that deal with various aspects of nomenclature. IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology The online version of the “Gold Book” which collects together terminology definitions from IUPAC recommendations published in the journal Pure and Applied Chemistry and in the other Colour Books. IUPAC Nomenclature This site, based at Queen Mary, provides information on IUPAC recommendations. The full-text of many of the recommendations is also available here.

Analytical Sciences Digital Library is a website funded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF), provides a collection of peer-reviewed analytical science resources for researchers, teachers, students, and interested amateurs. This is extremely helpful for people souring for information and do not know where to start from.

Journal of Visualised Experiments (JoVE) is a website specifically dedicated to serve the function of helping with laboratory techniques, a collection of videos demonstrating key experimental methods. This is a very important website as most of the activities are mostly practical. Basically Chemistry is a practical subject.

Learn Chemistry website is a free resource for Chemistry teachers and students of all levels, including higher education, hosted by Royal Society of Chemistry. This is a website mainly tailored to serve and cater the needs of the people who are curious and would like to increase their knowledge on any aspect concerning Chemistry. On the bright side it is easy to access and you do not have to pay anything in order to access it.

Organometallic HyperTextBook is a website that was created by Rob Toreki, is designed as a reference tool for students that are starting out in the area of organometallic chemistry. It includes information on a wide range of topics as well as links to other useful Internet resources.


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Essay on Interrelationship between the Revenue Cycle and Reimbursement

The revenue cycle involves the functions that enable healthcare institutions to collect and manage income. The stakeholders of the cycle include care providers, patients, and insurers. Reimbursement is the process of paying for the services offered by institutions. Healthcare organizations obtain their revenue from the services that they offer to patients. They might gain revenue directly from the patients or from insurance bodies. The record keeping department of the healthcare sector has a critical role in the revenue cycle and reimbursement because it the records of patients served by organizations. These records help care insurers to reimburse the healthcare organizations. The revenue cycle and reimbursement involves front-end, middle, and back-end processes. During the front-end process, the patients register with insurers, and the providers authorize treatment. In the middle process, the medical facilities offer care to patients and records the procedure for reimbursement. The back-end process involves the confirmation and authorization of payment by the patient or the insurer. The departments that affect revenue and reimbursement process include the Revenue Cycle Management, communication, and record keeping.

The revenue cycle and reimbursement has improved the transparency of care bills. As such, patients know their medical bills and financial responsibilities in advance. However, providers experience challenges when collecting payments due to slow-paying individuals, inability to pay, and lack of accountability. Delayed or no payments hinder the ability of the providers to offer quality care to patients. Healthcare organizations should establish a system that enables them to keep the patients’ credit cards for automatic reimbursements after the calculation of care bills. The system will reduce time wastage that occurs when receiving disbursements from the patients. In addition, the providers can implement a hospital charge master to record the costs of each service, prescription, procedure, and diagnostic test, which can help to bill the patients or insurers. Healthcare organizations should maintain their charge masters to uphold the integrity of the revenue cycle. An inaccurate charge master can lead to issues such as compliance violations, underpayments, and overpayments.

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Questions and Answers on Inter-disciplinary Teams

Q1.  Explain the benefit of using an inter-disciplinary team.

An inter-disciplinary team refers to group of health care specialists from different disciplines working together and focusing on a common aim of making decisions regarding a patient. Through interdisciplinary group strategy, patients receive quality care. First, the team enhances family and patient goals. The professionals focus on what the patient aims at achieving and work towards helping him/her. Second, the group provides a continuous channel of communication among the physicians, nurses, and other healthcare. When all the employees work as a team and channels information around the facility, they are able to enhance coordination and the smooth running of the health facility. Third, inter-disciplinary collaboration optimizes access of skills and competencies from each filed. An inter-disciplinary team consists of specialists from different disciplines. Fourth, the group nurtures respect among all experts and health providers, and this encourages all the staff to engage in inclusive decision making within and across fields.

Q2. Describe how using this team approach can improve client outcomes.

Several people in hospitals are often diagnosed by a number of different diseases. Fox example, the elderly require complex and special social, psychological and morbidity. The inter-disciplinary approach promotes effective flow of communication, which enhances proper coordination in attending to patient needs.  With joined efforts, they can focus on the different diagnoses of the patient in order to improve their services and the overall outcome. The approach helps them to avoid redundant assessments on the same patients, which leads to achieving more comprehensive health records. Moreover, it aids in avoiding risks the client might face when undergoing a certain treatment method. The team reduces the period a patient stays in the institute.

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Information on Defiant and Alternative Behaviors

Notably, cyber deviance incidences have been rampant in the recent past. Precisely, numerous reasons can be linked to the rapid spread of cyber deviance. Some of the reasons include increased computer crimes, immodest movies and televisions shows, the liberal internet platforms, and lack of parental guidance to young children. The liberal internet is the main reason behind the dramatic increase in cyber hate, cyber stalking, and pornography activities. Most of the online platforms do not have proper regulatory guidelines, an aspect that has allowed just anybody to use the internet to fulfill self-interests. As a result, propagators of cyber hate, cyber stalking, and pornography has had the upper hand in carrying out their malicious activities and identifying targets. However, there are numerous methods that can be applied to curb the cyber deviance incidences. Foremost, the governments need to redefine the legal description of cyber deviance acts by introducing tough laws and restrictions in order to regulate the vice. The public needs to be educated regarding cyber deviance, its implications, and its safety.

There are numerous descriptions of what can be termed as legal or illegal drugs worldwide. In the United States, however, the primary difference between the two is that legal drugs can either be purchased over the counter or with a prescription from a qualified physician. Illegal drugs, on the contrary, cannot be legally produced, ordered, or prescribed anywhere in the United States.  In particular, it appears that some harmful drugs are legal while the less harmful drugs are considered illegal. A good example is evident in the legalization of alcohol and tobacco that otherwise yield more harm compared to most illegal drugs. However, such drugs are classified as controlled drugs meaning that the government is able to regulate their usage any time. Nevertheless, the drug classification system has been crucial in assisting the law enforcement efforts to decrease drug abuse and usage among the American population. In short, it enables the government to control the production, purchase, selling, and use of various drugs.

In numerous instances, alcoholism has been considered in terms of both genetic and social explanations. In comparison, both explanations attest that alcoholism seems to run in families. However, the social explanation holds on that alcoholism is passed on from one generation to another, while genetics identifies an alcoholism gene that has an ability to influence an individual’s likelihood of having alcohol use disorder. Precisely, multiple genes are perceived to be responsible for playing a great role in a person’s risk of becoming an alcoholic. However, some genes are considered to increase a person’s risk while others minimize the risk. On the contrary, social explanations suggest that the pathway to alcoholism is complex and spearheaded by numerous psychological, cultural, and biological factors that mutually interact and change over time in different stages of life. Personally, I consider the genetic explanation to be more convincing. Most individuals who struggle with alcoholism reside in settings that harbor people who have never taken alcohol in their livelihood, therefore, suggesting an internal genetic problem within their bodies.

While there are numerous types of corporate deviant behavior, bullying proves to be a common challenge in most organizations. Corporate bullying can be defined as the unethical actions of individuals or a team directed towards a specific worker or a group of workers. Mostly, it is applied to humiliate, degrade, intimidate, and even undermine a particular employee’s capability in the organization. Precisely, it has been identified mostly from incidences of misuse or abuse of power. Nevertheless, there are some deviant activities known to characterize corporate operations. They include aggressive character, abuse of resources, and organizational politics among others. Poor management and inadequate communication is a primary cause for such activities. As a result, the deviant activities sabotage corporate goals towards achieving maximum productivity and a healthy organizational culture.

Defining robbery as a property crime indicates a common crime that relates to theft or damaging someone’s property. It has been used to describe small-scale crimes such as shoplifting to high scale crimes such as arson. On the contrary, robbery is considered as a violent crime, especially when the perpetrator applies or attempts to use force on a victim. It has been used to refer to numerous offenses such as rape and other violence-related crimes. I personally believe that robbery is a form of violence as the police states instead of the attempt to gain money as the author asserts. Obviously, most robberies if not all are committed using force and violence. Besides, the aftermath of a robbery incidence leaves the victim in a state of fear that brings along numerous consequences.

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Research Paper on Flood Control in Selma Indiana

Flooding occurs when water overflows to the dry parts of the earth that are not covered by it. While these types of natural disasters are mostly associated with heavy downpour, overflowing waters from wetlands to dry lands also causes floods. Other causes of flooding including snowmelt, coastal storms, and waterway overflow, and storm surge. There are different magnitudes of flooding depending on the water cover. Ideally, it is easier to control and manage shallow waters than deep floods that cover and destroy structures within the waterways. Besides the loss of property, flooding also causes drowning, hypothermia, and exacerbates the spread of water borne disease. Given these dire consequences, disaster control and management in areas prone to flooding is important. An example of such an area in the US with frequent flooding disasters is Selma, Indiana.


Background on the Issue

Selma town grew into prominence in the 19th century because of the transnational railroad. In addition, the industrial town is rife with natural resources such as gas and oil. Flooding generally occurs when there are no waterways for discharging flowing water. As a result, these waters create paths that ends into human settlements and investments. The destruction of the ecosystem for the infrastructure and economic development creates conflicts between mankind and nature. Ultimately, societies have discovered that the costs of disaster preparedness and evacuation measures surpasses the financial benefits. There are many cases throughout history that demonstrate how flooding has affected the socioeconomic structure of Indiana. Thus, flood control is an important policy agenda to the policymakers and residents of Selma and the state of Indiana.

Key Issues for Commencing the Risk Reduction Project

The vital objective of rescue mission is to preserve human dignity by reducing suffering and saving lives. Given that major disasters do not occur as conveniently planned, their magnitude to the community is often huge. Some of the key issues during these emergencies include health, security, food, housing, clean water, and other basic necessities. Therefore, before commencing a risk reduction project, the policymakers should first ensure that humans can access the basic commodities in case of a disaster. Secondly, emergency plans must be efficiently and effectively coordinated in order to mitigate the effects of the disaster to the people and their assets.

Key Stakeholders Involved

Ideally, flood control and mitigation initiatives should include the whole society. However, the stakeholders with the highest culpability are those responsible for developing strategic and systematic plans for the emergencies. These stakeholders include policy makers, law enforcing authorities, disaster mitigation forces such as fire fighters, and humanitarian organizations.


Given that Selma is an industrial and mining town, it is expected to have a large population of people working in these fields. According to the latest national census that was conducted in 2010, the racial makeup of the city was 80.3 % African Americans, 18% whites, and 2 % other ethnicities such as Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans.

Geographic Region

Selma region is located in Dallas County in the state of Arizona.

Past historical Disasters in the Area

Selma city, Arizona, is well known for the civil rights Marches that resulted in many casualties in what would later be known as Bloody Sunday. Other disasters include the 2012 flooding emergency that prompted federal intervention and assistance.

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Essay on the Role of Benefits and Compensation in Employee Retention

For a long time now, it is widely accepted that for a business to succeed, every player must consider the four basic components in any business that include man, material machine, and money. Of all these factors, man is deemed the most important player, as he can directly play a part in a company’s efficiency and effectiveness. According to Coker, the practice of compensating employees goes a long way into aligning them with the objectives of the company. Many negative attributes in employees such as lateness, laziness, alcoholism, and incompetence can be a big setback to a company achieving its ambitions. Of importance to note is the impact that human ambitions, emotions and expectations has on the employees. Compensation, therefore, tires to address these areas of concern. Compensation refers to any form of reward or monetary payment, which employees receive as an appreciation for their service in a company including perks, cash rewards, benefits and services. Compensation helps to attract, retain, motivates and maintains high morale in the workforce and helps to meet legal requirements and inspires employee’s personal growth.

Texas Health Resources is a health organization that was ranked 15th in Fortune Magazine report on best companies to work for in the world. The company offers a wide range of benefits and compensation to its employees. The perks include telecommuting, compressed work weeks, health insurance for the part-timers, and sick days for the part-timers, subsidized gym and fitness, and college tuition reimbursement for skill advancement purposes. The company also offers paid time off for sick days for both permanently employees and part-time employees. Compensation include salaried extra compensation on top of one’s salary. The company maintains employee diversity in its hiring.

Deloitte is a global consultancy firm, which was ranked 11th by Fortune magazine. The firm believes in employee motivation as shown by its $300 million University meant to train employees to improve on their skills. Perks in this firm include fully paid sabbaticals, onsite medical care establishment, and health insurance for part-timers, college tuition reimbursement, and student loan repayment. Compensation includes extra compensation on top of the salary. Each employee also receives 42 days of paid time off per year. The firm offers a lot of bonuses inform of money to employees for outstanding performances. It offers well-being subsidy, a pension plan and family leave to help employees to bond with their families.

The two companies have many similarities in their compensation strategies. First, the companies are concerned about employees’ health and overall wellbeing. The companies, therefore, offer health insurance to both part-time and permanently employed staff. On top of that, they offer subsidized fitness and gym facilities. They offer paid time off for sick days. This motivates employees knowing that their employer cares about their personal health. Second, the companies are greatly involved in employee skill advancement and personal growth. They offer college tuition reimbursement and other programs geared towards employee skill advancement. By doing so, the employees are able to see the company as a place where they can advance their careers and even feel indebted to work for the company thereby increasing motivation and efficiency.

Benefits and compensation in a company is a proven way to motivate and retain employees. Companies such as Texas Health Resources and Deloitte have succeeded in creating a positive environment for employees through benefits and compensation, which has led to the overall success of the two firms. The employees will tend to work hard if they feel appreciated, loved, and cared. They reciprocate their love by being loyal, working under little supervision, and controlling the business as if it is theirs.

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Research Paper on International Business Transactions

Executive Summary

The issue at hand relates challenges that international companies when conducting cross-border transactions. This report provides an analysis and evaluation of the various legal requirements for international businesses. Specifically, the report aims at providing knowledge, awareness, and alternative means of developing a sustainable business environment for the government of Madripoare to help organizations such as The World Commerce Operations (WCO), an American-incorporated company.

One key area of report addresses concerns the responsibility of various parties handling international transactions. Due to lack of clarity, businesses are bound to overlook certain crucial procedures. Therefore, it is important for organizations to understand its contractual obligation in the context of international business. Since laws and practices are different in various countries, it is important for the company to have clear information of the business regulations in each region. For a start, this report contains the facts of some of the transactions that WCO has engaged in, as well as their legal, financial, and reputational implications.

The discussion section of the report contains an in-depth analysis of each of the international transactions the company undertook and their legal implication on all the parties involved. Moreover, the report highlights some of the loopholes that the company can avoid in future. As the report indicates, some of the loopholes and managerial oversights can result in significant financial losses. Lastly, there is a list of recommendations that the government and the company can adopt during future business dealings.

The Facts

            The government of Madripoare is keen in promoting foreign direct investment in the country. In addition, the government is committed to ensuring that the existing multinational companies operate without any hindrances. One such company, World Commerce Operations, have a number of subsidiaries in Madripoare. In line with its strategic business plan, the American-incorporated company also wants to expand its operations in other countries. Consequently, the directors plan to use the company’s manufacturing plants in Dalawi to produce goods for sale in the Pacific Rim and other regions.

In the first scenario, WCO need to export hard-disk drives to a Chinese and Filipino manufacturer of videogame consoles. However, the company is undecided on the terms of delivery of the goods between the Cost Insurance and Freight (CIF) and Free On Board (FOB). The only certainty the directors have is that of the payment currency. For example, the Chinese can pay for the consignment in euros or dollars, but the Filipino organization can only use their local currency as a result of recent government regulations.

In the second scenario, the organization needs to contend with the instances of loss of goods while in transit. In this case, WCO entered into an agreement with a Thai buyer to supply cars under the FOB terms. WCO contracted an English Freight Company, Portsmouth World Transporter (PWT) to load the cars onto the ships. In the process, 25 cars got completely damaged after falling into the sea.

In the third scenario, WCO decides to engage the services of its former sales representative for crucial business leads in the Pacific Rim. The sales representative enters into contractual agreements with local organizations in the region and supplied them with WCO goods manufactured in Dalawi. However, the sales representative did not have any formal agreement with WCO to supply the goods. When a customer detected a fault in one consignment, he threatened to sue the sales representative. However, the sales representative argued that he was simply an agent of WCO, thus not liable. However, WCO argued that there was no formal agreement between the sales representative and the company.

Lastly, the company entrusted the captain of a ship to inspect an oyster consignment destined for the Japanese port of Niigata. The captain randomly inspected the consignment, which he found to have been smelly, hence unsuitable for shipment. However, the captain authorized the shipment and issued a bill of lading. The incident has a significant implication on the issue of responsibility.


Each of the four scenarios represents varying implications on the business, both financially and legally. In each case, the company evidently committed significant oversights in the way it dealt with its partners and other parties. Certainly, there is a clear lack of procedure, which resulted in financial and reputational loss.

Issue 1: The Hard-Disk Exportation Business

Whenever businesses engage in export business, it important that they understand the various terms of transportations, their implications, and the risks involved. At the same time, organizations must take into consideration the means of payment for the goods, including currency difference and terms of shipment. First, WCO needed to differentiate the difference between FOB and CIF. Both are contractual agreements that are involved in export transactions to maintain uniformity, certainty, and predictability in international trade. CIF and FOB are also important in international export sales contracts because they stipulate the obligations of the parties to the transactions with regards to price, delivery, and other incidental charges.

Under the FOB contractual terms, the seller is under no obligation to insure the consignment of goods. However, it is the seller’s obligation to place the goods aboard a nominated vessel and port of shipment. In this case, it was the responsibility of the Chinese and Filipino importers to take control of the goods once WCO put them on board a ship. In other words, the importer pays for insurance, cost of freight, and any other incidental charges under FOB terms. WCO was only supposed to pay carrier charges up to the point of loading. In addition, the seller’s price in FOB is lower than in CIF terms since the costs entail transport of goods up to the port of dispatch.

However, under the CIF contractual terms, the seller is responsible for carriage, insurance, and handling charges of goods up to the time when the consignment reached the port of the buyer. In addition, the seller must obtain a bill of lading, procure contract for carriage, produce a commercial invoice, and tender the documents to the buyer. Under CIF terms, the responsibilities and risks of the exporter increase considerably than under FOB contract. Before deciding on the most suitable term, it is important for the exporter to consider factors such as value of the goods, risks in involved, and the duration of shipment.

In addition, the directors of WCO must take into consideration the payment currency to avoid losses arising from cross-currency fluctuation. One of the greatest risks in international transaction is currency fluctuation. Since WCO deals in dollars, the transaction with the Chinese importer does not represent any considerable loss because it does not entails currency conversion. However, the transaction with the Filipino importer may present a substantial risk of loss due to two reasons. First, the Peso may fluctuate wildly due to governmental involvement. Second, the Peso may appreciate in value, leading to a loss to WCO.

Issue 2: Loss of Goods in Transit

In international transactions, there is always a significant risk of loss of goods. Some of the main causes of losses of goods include careless handling, theft, accidents, and natural calamities such as typhoons. However, the responsibility of the loss depends on the terms that exist between the buyer and seller. The Uniform Commercial Code’s section regarding Risk of Loss is a good example that WCO can follow before deciding on the best approach to ship goods. For example, there is evidence that the cars reached the port of export and got damaged due to careless handling by the assigned transporter. The law stipulates that if the exporter opts for the FOB terms, his or her responsibility ends when the goods cross the carrier’s rails. In contrast, the exporter is fully liable until the goods reach the port of the buyer under the CIF terms. Since WCO contracted the transporter to load the cars onto the ship, then the company was liable under the CIF terms. However, the Thai importer would have been liable for the loss if the agreement had been under FOB terms.

Issue 3: Actions of Unauthorized Agent

In the context of cross-border transactions, contractual agreements between parties may exist in various forms. In the case of WCO, the contract between the company and the Sales Representative was implied. An implied contract entails one party executing an obligation on behalf of another on account of previous relationships. WCO contacted its former sales representative with the hope of establishing a business presence in the Pacific Rim. Such agreements are usually based on trust rather than any official engagement between contracting parties. However, the agent in the WCO case engaged in express contract with local customers for the supply of computer parts. Formal or written agreements constitute express contracts because they involve significant degree of formality.

Both express and implied contracts are enforceable in the event of a breach. Thus, the sales representative was liable for the supply of defective computer parts since the terms of the contract was that he would only supply goods in acceptable conditions. At the same time, WCO, having entered into an implied contract with the agent, was also liable for the supply of defective products. Even in implied contracts, the parties to the agreement are under the obligation to perform their part of the obligation. Another key factor in determining the validity of a contract is through conduct. Through conduct, a party can enter into a legally-binding contract with counterparty . Therefore, both the sales representative and WCO were liable for the supply of defective items because they were party to the contract trough conduct.

Issue 4: Inspection of the Oysters Consignment

It is a legal requirement for businesses involved in international trade to ensure that they inspect their consignments before shipping them to the buyer. Before a bill of lading is issued, a quality control official must randomly inspect the consignment to ensure that it is in good condition. The bill of lading is a statutory document that signifies that goods have been duly inspected at the port of shipment. One aspect of a bill of lading is that the person named as the shipper or consignee can only be bound as such if the person completing the document has considerable authority. The captain, who inspected the oyster’s consignment, committed an act of falsification because he knowingly authorized for the production of a bill of lading document after declaring the goods as in apparent good order and condition. Although the captain was not an authorized inspector, the law stipulates that he represented the shipper, thus the company was liable for exporting a defective consignment.


            To mitigate the risks involved in international transactions, WCO can take several measures. First, there is a need to have a clear policy with regards to the type of contract to adopt during shipment. The safest shipment contract is FOB the business is not liable once goods leave the port of the seller. Second, the organization should appoint agents in the regions it intend to have a business presence in order to minimize ambiguity. Such agents will be under direct authorizations to act for and on behalf of the organization. Third, the organization should ensure that it uses qualified quality control personnel to inspect perishable goods before shipment. As a result, the company will eliminate the potential of lawsuits and having to pay damages to affected customers.


            Evidently, WCO is an international company whose transactions may result in legal implications. The company’s mode of engagement results in ambiguity and lack of clarity. For example, it is unsure on the best shipment terms to use. In addition, the business fails to appoint recognized agent or a qualified inspect. Instead, the company adopts highly informal channels to conduct some of its business operations. Such actions give rise to a potential of legal actions due to breach of agreements. Some of the recommendations include formal appointment of agents, use of qualifies inspection personnel, and establishment of clear shipment terms.






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Essay on Communication Skills is the Key to Success

Executive Summary

The proposal aims at establishing the debating club at Orchard Middle School to improve the interaction among the students. According to Anderson & Mezuk proper communication plays a critical role in human interaction and learning process. In fact, through communication, students can adequately share their experiences, ideas, and emotions. The debating club shall be established in Orchard Middle School. The debating club intends to build a strong and a big hall that will accommodate more than 1000 students from different grades. Furthermore, the school shall work in collaboration with other partners from the Department of Children and Youth Affairs to improve students’ communication skills in the private and public settings.

Recently, with the emergence of social media and other interactive platforms, the students’ communication ability is drastically declining. A large number of students can hardly express themselves in the public using proper and recommended language. Therefore, through debating forums, the students will gain confidence and learn to analyze the critical issues during the discussion.  In response to the declining trends of communication skills among students, the debating club shall request funding from different sectors to facilitate regular debating sessions.

Orchard Middle School Debating Club Overview

Mission Statement

The mission of Orchard Middle School debating club is to provide the students with a superior platform for improving their communication skills which focuses on the principles of access, interaction, reliability and vitality.   

Goals and Objectives

To facilitate effective sharing of experiences, emotions, and ideas, Orchard Middle School debating club will pursue the following goals:

  • Set-up an independent Hall in the institution that will accommodate more than 1000 students from different grades.
  • Focus on language-oriented services to attract students with verse experience in communication skills from different parts of the society.
  • Provide generous benefits and continuing education to a large number of students to improve their listening and communication skills.

Statement of the Problem

After keenly studying the society for a long period of time, scholars established that the students in the different learning institutions in the United States lacked adequate concepts in communication skills. For instance, most of the students interviewed hardly incorporated the recommended forms of etiquette or used the required formal means of communications. Consequently, the scholars noticed the growing and the existing gap in the communication industry. Educationists from different disciples studied the growing trends in the decline of proper communication skills. Based on their experience, the educationists realized that there was a demand to revive the debating forums in the learning institutions to improve the communication capabilities of the students.

Therefore, the aim of the proposed project is to present a few briefs and honest guidelines for starting a debating club in learning institutions. According to Ray & Devi, much of the information and documentaries that people write depend on their verse experience in debating sector. Furthermore, the direct conversation with good debaters across the world proved that the largest percentage of people prefer direct students engagement in debating activities as a means of improving their communication skills. However, the students must undergo through some challenges while starting a debating club such as prolonged stay at the learning institutions. Furthermore, the debating process does not provide a guarantee that the learners’ efforts will have a lasting impact.


The management is one of the critical issues in ensuring the success of different projects in the society. To ensure that the Orchard Middle School debating club achieve its pre-set objectives, the learners must elect the stable and honest leaders in top management positions. The leaders will be responsible for initiating, overseeing and supervising the activities of the club such as finding the appropriate time for debate, calling for the debating assemblies, buying the stationery  items for the debaters, and organizing the debating hall in time. Furthermore, the management team will promote social responsibility in the school in which the club will be operating. To a large extent, the club leaders will ensure that the management works are smooth and cost-effective.

The Strategies Debating and Establishing a Debating Club

The student debates focus of the three major parts which include constructive speech, cross-examination, and rebuttal. In the constructive speech, the debaters begin the argument by stating the three supporting points at the beginning of the discussion and explaining the points in the preceding sentences. The constructive argument provides a platform which allows the debaters to analyse the strongest of the weakest points of discussion. Second, the students carry out cross-examination of the concepts which involving arranging the questions from general to specific issues. Rebuttal involves the process of pointing out the inconsistencies, absurdities, and illogical ideas of the opponents. The speakers have the opportunities to criticize the opposing arguments and states the importance of his concepts. At the rebuttal stage, the debaters do not require the new evidence but instead deconstruct the points of their opponents.

The students accrue some benefits from participating in the debates in the schools. For instance, through debates, students gain experiences which are essential to cognitive, life-experience and presentation skills. Second, the debate educates learners on the skills of conducting researches, organizing issues, and presenting information in the most compelling fashion. Through debating, the students can acquire knowledge which cut across a number of disciplines in the society. Furthermore, debates can improve the learners’ confidence and self-esteem, thus, improving their abilities to organize their thoughts in the best structures.


The Orchard Middle School will get their finance from the students’ contributions, support from the administration, the contribution from the government grants, and money from social investors. The students will use the money from charitable contributions to buy debating equipment and construct enough-spaced hall that can accommodate more than 1000 people.

Cost Analysis and Cost Structure

The total cost required for the establishment and operation of the Orchard Middle School is an approximately $ 16 650. The school presents a funding proposal of $16,650 to the Department of Children and Youth Affairs to complete the planning of establishing the debating club.  Part of the money would be set aside for the hiring and renovation of the hall to be used for the debates. The acquisition of renovation items and labor charges is estimated to be at $ 10 000. The student leaders can invest $ 3 000 to register the club, create a website, produce posters, develop invitation cards, and buy T-Shirts. The club will use the remaining $ 3 650 for traveling expenses and buying of the stationery such as pens, bells, clocks, and notebooks.

Start-Up Expenses structure

Construction of the Hall

Buying Start-Up Equipment

Buying Stationeries

10 000



TOTAL 16 500



In conclusions, the overall projections of the expenditures and the services stated in the proposal facilitate the attainment of the goals and objectives. Therefore, the students will improve their communication skills. Furthermore, the students will comfortably share their experiences, emotions, and ideas to different people in the society. Importantly, the debating will create the opportunity for the students to carry out researches and confidently presents their findings to relevant people.

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Region 7 Regional Resource Leader: Cathy Hennebury

Executive Director, Forty Mile Community Adult Learning Association

Cathy Hennebury is currently the Executive Director for the Forty Mile Community Adult Learning Association. Cathy began her career with Community Learning as a Family Literacy Facilitator. She facilitated the Parent/Child Mother Goose program at her local playgroup in Skiff in 2000. In 2002 she became a board member for the association. In 2005 due to the resignation of the Community Adult Learning coordinator, she resigned from the board to take over the office until another coordinator could be hired. Cathy enjoyed the opportunities and challenges that the job brought so decided to apply for the job herself. In 2007 Cathy stepped up her contributions to Community Learning by becoming a Community Learning Network (CLN) board member until the fall of 2010. She continues to work with the CLN board as a member of the Membership Expansion Committee. In 2011 Cathy was promoted within her own council to Executive Director and is delighted to be once again working with the CLN in her role as Regional Resource Leader.

Location & Area Served Council Contact Information
Serving the County of Newell,
including Bassano, Gem, Rosemary,
Duchess, Patricia, Millecent,
Cassils, Rainer, Scandia,
Rolling Hills, Tilley and Bow City
Newell Further Education Council
Mail to: Box 478
Bassano, AB T0J 0B0
Jackie Peterson, Coordinator
Kathy Bulger, Literacy Coordinator
Telephone: 403-641-3444
Fax: 403-641-3442
Hours: Tues & Thur 9:00-5:30 (closed July-Aug)
Serving the Municipality of
Crowsnest Pass, including the
communities of Bellevue, Blairmore,
Coleman, Frank and Hillcrest.
Crowsnest Pass Adult Education Network
10507 – 20 Avenue
Mail to: Box 103
Blairmore, Alberta T0K 0E0
Toni Gfrerer, Coordinator
Cheryl Cann, Literacy Coordinator
Telephone: 403-562-2853
Fax: 403-562-8045
Hours: Mon-Thur 8:30-3:30 (closed July-Aug)
Serving the City of Brooks.
Brooks Community Adult Learning Council
104 1st St West
Mail to: Box 64
Brooks, AB T1R 1B2
Huber Ellis, Coordinator
Telephone: 403-362-5372
Fax: 403-793-8249
Hours: Mon-Thur 9:00-4:00, Fri 9-2
Serving the communities of Cardston,
Magrath, Glenwood and Hill Spring.
Cardston & District Community Adult Learning Council
445 Main Street
Mail to: Box 10
Cardston, AB T0K 0K0
Kathryn Richards, Director
Telephone: 403-653-4991
Fax: 403-653-4641
Hours: Mon-Fri 8:30-4:30
Fort Macleod
Serving the M.D. of Willow Creek,
including the communities of
Claresholm, Nanton, Fort Macleod,
Granum, Stavely, Parkland,
Willow Creek Community Adult Learning Society
521 26 St Lethbridge College Campus
Mail to: Box 1300
Fort Macleod, AB T0L 0Z0
Kate Glover, Coordinator
Marie Schooten, Literacy Coordinator
Telephone: 403-553-4106
Toll Free: 1-888-625-4107
Fax: 403-398-1447
Hours: Mon-Fri 9:00-4:00
Serving the County of Lethbridge,
including the communities of Coaldale,
Coalhurst, Picture Butte, Shaughnessy,
Nobleford, Barons, Iron Springs,Turin,
Monarch and Diamond City.
County of Lethbridge Community Learning Council
1712 20 Ave
Mail to: Box 1238
Coaldale, AB T1M 1N1
Sue Wilkie, Coordinator
Judy Millard, Literacy Coordinator
Telephone: 403-345-6009
Fax: 403-345-3285
Mon 8:30-3:00,
Tues-Thur 8:30-4:00,
Fri 8:30-12:00
(closed July-Aug)
Serving the County of Forty Mile,
including the communities of
Foremost, Bow Island and Burdett.
Forty Mile Community Adult Learning Council
303 Main Street
Mail to: Box 508
Foremost, AB T0K 0X0
Cathy Hennebury, Coordinator
Jodi Cassell, Literacy Coordinator
Telephone: 403-867-3973
Fax: 403-867-2242
Hours: Mon-Fri 9:00-3:00
(closed July-Aug)
Serving the city of Lethbridge.
Lethbridge Lifelong Learning Association
Mail to: 506, 740- 4 Avenue, South
Lethbridge, AB T1J 0N9
Bev Siller, Office Manager
Telephone: 403-524-3868
Fax: 403-524-3868
Hours: Mon-Fri 9:30-2:30
Medicine Hat
Serving the City of Medicine Hat
and Cypress County, including the
communities of Redcliff, Dunmore,
Ralston, Suffield, Hilda, Schuler,
Veinerville, Irvine, Seven Persons
and Walsh
L.E.A.R.N., the Medicine Hat & District
Further Education Council
Mail to: 299 College Drive S.E.
Medicine Hat, AB T1A 3Y6
Deanna Arelis, Executive Director
Celena Gerl, Family Literacy Manager
Telephone: 403-504-3513
Fax: 403-504-3680
Hours: Mon-Fri 9:00-4:00
Serving the communities of Oyen,
Acadia Valley and Cereal, Esther,
New Brigden, Sedalia, Sibbald,
Buffalo, Bindloss and Empress.
Big Country Community Adult Learning Council
113 – 2 Avenue West
Mail to: Box 667
Oyen, AB T0J 2J0
Sherri Robertson, Coordinator
Darlene Scarff, Literacy Coordinator
Telephone: 403-664-2060
Fax: 403-664-2905
Hours: Mon-Fri 9:00-3:00 (closed July-Aug)
Pincher Creek
Serving the communities of
Pincher Creek, Cowley, Lundbreck,
Twin Butte and Waterton.
Pincher Creek Community Adult Learning Council
1300 Hewetson Ave
Mail to: Box 1206
Pincher Creek, AB T0K 1W0
Jenny Vandersteen, Coordinator
Telephone: 403-627-4478
Fax: 403-627-5065
Hours: Mon-Fri 8:30-4:00 (closed July-Aug)
Serving the M.D. of Taber, including
Taber, Barnwell, Grassy Lake,
Enchant, Hays, and Vauxhall.
Taber & District Community Adult Learning
5011 – 49 Avenue
Mail to: Box 20
Taber, AB T1G 1V9
Jane Brenner, Executive Director
Literacy Coordinator
Telephone: 403-223-1169
Fax: 403-223-3412
Hours: Mon-Thur 9:00-4:30, Fri 9:00-1:00
(closed July and part of Aug)
Serving Vulcan County, including the
communities of Vulcan, Arrowwood,
Mossleigh, Carmangay,Champion,
Lomond and Milo.
Vulcan County Adult Learning Council
102 Centre Street
Mail to: Box 180
Vulcan, AB T0L 2B0
Cathy Dallmann, Coordinator
Telephone: 403-485-3109
Fax: 403-485-1979
Hours: Mon-Thur 8:30-4:00 (closed July-Aug)
Serving the County of Warner,
including the communities of Coutts,
Masinasin, Milk River, New Dayton,
Raymond, Stirling, Warner
and Wrentham.
County of Warner Further Education Council
300 County Road
Mail to: Box 278
Warner, AB T0K 2L0
Carolyn Otto, Coordinator
Jason Carroll, Literacy Coordinator
Telephone: 403-642-3635
Toll Free: 1-888-642-2241
Fax: 403-642-3631
Hours: Mon,Tues,Thur 9:00-4:30
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Posted in News

Region 6 – Calgary & Area


Regional Resource Leader: To be announced

Location and Area Served Council Contact Information
Serving Airdrie, Beiseker, Chestermere,
Bragg Creek, Cochrane, Crossfield,
Madden, Kathyrn and Irricana.
Rocky View Schools Community Learning
2651 Chinook Drive SW
Airdrie, AB T4B 0B4
Chelsea Jackson, Community Learning Coordinator
Telephone: 403-945-4114
Fax: 403-948-3255
Hours: Mon-Fri 8:10-4:30
Serving the communities of Banff,
Canmore and Lake Louise.
Bow Valley Learning Council
221 1001 6th Ave Mistaya Place
Mail to: Box 8045
Canmore, AB T1W 2T8
Jen Feikes, Coordinator
Madeline Crilley, Literacy Coordinator
Telephone: 403-762-8114
Fax: 1-888-516-7607
Hours: Mon-Fri varied hours, 9:00-12:30 usually
Serving the City of Calgary.
Calgary Learns
200, 301 – 14 St. N.W.
Calgary, AB T2N 2A1
Krista Poole,  Executive Director
Megan Williams, Communications Coordinator
Jeanie Finch, Grants Coordinator
Telephone: 403-215-1431
Fax: 403-266-6449
Hours: Mon-Fri 8:30-4:30
Serving the M.D. of Foothills,
including the communities of
High River, Okotoks, Black Diamond,
Turner Valley and Millarville.
Foothills Continuing Education Council
229 Woodhaven Drive
Mail to: Box 1145
Okotoks, AB T1S 1B2
Deborah Payne, Coordinator
Sandra Oleksiw, Literacy Coordinator
Telephone: 403-850-2187
Fax: 403-938-7365
Hours: Tues & Thurs 9:00-5:00
Serving the County of Wheatland,
including the communities of
Strathmore, Standard, Carseland,
Hussar, Gleichen, Cluny, Rosebud,
Dalum, Rockyford and Lyalta.
Wheatland Further Education Society
55 Hillview Road
Strathmore, AB T1P 1T8
Joyce Bazant, Coordinator
Telephone: 403-934-5785
Fax: 403-901-1785
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