Flooding occurs when water overflows to the dry parts of the earth that are not covered by it. While these types of natural disasters are mostly associated with heavy downpour, overflowing waters from wetlands to dry lands also causes floods. Other causes of flooding including snowmelt, coastal storms, and waterway overflow, and storm surge. There are different magnitudes of flooding depending on the water cover. Ideally, it is easier to control and manage shallow waters than deep floods that cover and destroy structures within the waterways. Besides the loss of property, flooding also causes drowning, hypothermia, and exacerbates the spread of water borne disease. Given these dire consequences, disaster control and management in areas prone to flooding is important. An example of such an area in the US with frequent flooding disasters is Selma, Indiana.
Background on the Issue
Selma town grew into prominence in the 19th century because of the transnational railroad. In addition, the industrial town is rife with natural resources such as gas and oil. Flooding generally occurs when there are no waterways for discharging flowing water. As a result, these waters create paths that ends into human settlements and investments. The destruction of the ecosystem for the infrastructure and economic development creates conflicts between mankind and nature. Ultimately, societies have discovered that the costs of disaster preparedness and evacuation measures surpasses the financial benefits. There are many cases throughout history that demonstrate how flooding has affected the socioeconomic structure of Indiana. Thus, flood control is an important policy agenda to the policymakers and residents of Selma and the state of Indiana.
Key Issues for Commencing the Risk Reduction Project
The vital objective of rescue mission is to preserve human dignity by reducing suffering and saving lives. Given that major disasters do not occur as conveniently planned, their magnitude to the community is often huge. Some of the key issues during these emergencies include health, security, food, housing, clean water, and other basic necessities. Therefore, before commencing a risk reduction project, the policymakers should first ensure that humans can access the basic commodities in case of a disaster. Secondly, emergency plans must be efficiently and effectively coordinated in order to mitigate the effects of the disaster to the people and their assets.
Key Stakeholders Involved
Ideally, flood control and mitigation initiatives should include the whole society. However, the stakeholders with the highest culpability are those responsible for developing strategic and systematic plans for the emergencies. These stakeholders include policy makers, law enforcing authorities, disaster mitigation forces such as fire fighters, and humanitarian organizations.
Given that Selma is an industrial and mining town, it is expected to have a large population of people working in these fields. According to the latest national census that was conducted in 2010, the racial makeup of the city was 80.3 % African Americans, 18% whites, and 2 % other ethnicities such as Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans.
Selma region is located in Dallas County in the state of Arizona.
Past historical Disasters in the Area
Selma city, Arizona, is well known for the civil rights Marches that resulted in many casualties in what would later be known as Bloody Sunday. Other disasters include the 2012 flooding emergency that prompted federal intervention and assistance.